DISESES INFECTION MAPPING
OVERALL DISEASES RISK MAPPING
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for most deaths worldwide. In view of the rising prevalence and the long-term consequences of NCDs, their prevention is a public health priority. Every two years, Ain Shams University hospitals perform a periodic review to ensure that community intervention convoys for NCDs are adequately planned. The most recent assessment was completed in 2017, and it has not been updated subsequently. Furthermore, the evaluation does not consider the geographical distribution in its analysis, which reduces the accuracy of the assessment results. The hospital seeks to study aspects of the problem of NCDs in Wailey region which has a population of 79,394.
The present project adopts an integrated approach that considers multi-criteria and several spatial data inputs for assessing the social, environmental, economic and NCDs situation in Wailey district. Several data types covering the three dimensions of sustainable development were utilized in addition to the NCDs records for modeling risks of environmental components, diseases infection and socioeconomic factors. The NCDs thematic layers were reclassified into three equal classes based on statistics of each layer individually; high Risk (class 1), Moderate Risk (class 2) and Low Risk (class 3). Four different scenarios were developed; Overall NCDs scenario and specific scenario for each NCD (i.e. Blood pressure, diabetes and heart diseases) using ArcGIS 10.8.
Services and infrastructure were initially assessed indicating urban areas are dominating the whole district (84.12 %) with poor vegetation cover. Roads are extensively distributed in the district with a total length of 125,769.740426 meters, which encouraged significant urbanization to occur in the region. Wailey district can be divided into two categories based on the distribution of hospitals; those with plenty of hospitals and others lack a sufficient number. A map of pharmacies distribution has also been extracted. Three factories were detected within the borders of Sheikha Al Sarayat and two others within the borders of Sheikha Alabassya El-Baharia.
Environmental parameters were assessed through investigation of LST, UHIs and PM10. The mean LST of Wailey district is 38.65 ˚c where the highest LST exists in the south and the northeast directions of the district due to the intensive urban areas at these regions. The spatial distribution of UHIs shows that the hot spots are distributed in the built-up area characterized by industrial activities.
MennaTullah El-KholyTeaching Assistant at Faculty of Computer and Information Science
Mariam MohamedGis Specialist and Technician at Maxab Office
Nourhan AttiaStudied at faculty of humanities studies, department of geography, Al- Azhar University, Cairo
Rania MansourAssistant researcher at the National Authority for Remote Sensing
Nour Eldin MohamedDemonstrator at the faculty of science at the Ain Shams University.
Fatma OthmanStudied at the Faculty of Art, Asuit University, Department of Geographic Information Systems
Under supervision of
Associate Prof. Ahmed M. El-ZeinyHead of Environmental Studies Department, National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), Egypt
Prof. Hany Farouk AbdelhayVisiting Professor, Ain Shams University
Geographic Information System
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system that creates, manages, analyzes, and maps all types of data. GIS connects data to a map, integrating location data (where things are) with all types of descriptive information (what things are like there). This provides a foundation for mapping and analysis that is used in science and almost every industry. GIS helps users understand patterns, relationships, and geographic context. The benefits include improved communication and efficiency as well as better management and decision making.
Remote sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance (typically from satellite or aircraft). Special cameras collect remotely sensed images, which help researchers "sense" things about the Earth.
Urban Heat Island
Urban heat islands phenomenon (UHI) In urban environments, the temperature is observed to be higher in comparison to that at nearby rural areas. The UHI represents any urban areas radiating higher temperatures than the warmest temperatures associated with tree canopy. The reasons for UHI are different, including characteristic components and human variables, where the main cause is the land use changes..
Land Use/ Land Cover
Although the terms land cover and land use are often used interchangeably, their actual meanings are quite distinct. Land cover refers to the surface cover on the ground, whether vegetation, urban infrastructure, water, bare soil or other. Identifying, delineating and mapping land cover is important for global monitoring studies, resource management, and planning activities. Identification of land cover establishes the baseline from which monitoring activities (change detection) can be performed, and provides the ground cover information for baseline thematic maps.
Air Quality Index
Air pollution is currently one of the major problems in developed countries as well as in developing countries. The five pollutants which are ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM) are referred to as criteria of the Air Pollution Index (API) by the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. PM10 refers to particles greater than 2.5 microns up to 10 microns.
The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, group up, live work and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness. Noncommunicable diseases cannot be effectively addressed without action on social determinants of health.For example, local transport and housing policies are needed; national fiscal, environmental, education and social policies; and global financial, trade and agricultural policies.