NOTES ON THE STRUCTURAL AND NEOTECTONIC EVOLUTION OF EL-FAIYUM DEPRESSION, EGYPT: RELATIONSHIPS TO EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS
EI-Faiyum Depression in the Western Desert of Egypt is a structurally- controlled tectonic basin, marked by northeast-striking faults along its northern margin. These faults are parallel to similar faults of the Syrian arc fold belt, which includes a group of related faults, folds, push-up structures, and basins. Lake Qarun is located in the northern part of EI-Faiyum Depression, at a right-step between two strands of the NE striking fault system. We suggest that Lake Qarun, resting at 45 meters below sea level, is a pull-apart (?) basin formed along dextral strike slip faults related to the Syrian arc. Eocene-Pliocene deposits of the Faiyum Depression may be thermal subsidence phase deposits related to extension in the Lake Qarun pull-apart. The Syrian arc belt has been active intermittently from the Cretaceous through the present, consistent with the record of recent seismicity in the Faiyum Depression. We recommend the initiation of a program for detailed mapping, satellite image interpretation, topographic modeling, and seismic monitoring to better understand and help reduce the hazards associated with active faulting in the area.
PRELIMINARY APPRAISAL OF GEO-DATA OF THE ASYUT-KllARG4. DISTRICT, EGYPT, FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT
The appraisal of the existing geo-data of the Asyut-Kharga district, in compatibility with visual interpretation of Landsat images, has assisted to define and delineate the natural assets, as well as areas threatened by geologic hazards (flash flooding, sand dune encroachment and land sliding) for development purposes. The suitability for urbanization is classified relatively into three orders.
GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF THE CENTRAL PART OF THE WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT
The present study involves a systematic approach aiming to assess the geo- environmental aspects of the desert land in the central part of the Western Desert of Egypt basically for urban development. The geo-environmental themes comprise: climatic conditions, topography, drainage network, lithological and structural setting, soil types, mineral deposits and infrastructure. Maps corresponding to the different geo-environmental attributes are re-evaluated with respect to visual interpretation of Landsat images, and automated by the application of computer-assisted operations of Geographic Information System (GIS). This multidisciplinary approach has made it possible to delineate natural resource assets, areas of natural hazards, and concomitantly allocate suitable areas for urban development.
SALIENT GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS OF RAS MALAAB - ABU ZENIMA AREA, GULF OF SUEZ, EGYPT, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON FLASH FLOOD POTENTIAL AND MITIGATIVE MEASURES
The Gulf of Suez rift is composed of a series of horsts and grabens that had controlled the prevailing geomorphological features. The eastern coastal strip of the Gulf, where the Ras Malaab-Abu Zenima area is located, varies in width and is characterized by a multitude of tourist - attractive natural features. The drainage network of Sinai Peninsula is well developed, integrated and fairly dense. It drains terrains of different lithology, structure and physiography. Thirty-seven drainage basins debouch into the eastern shoulder of the Gulf representing 19 % of the total area of Sinai. Sinai is occasionally subjected to heavy rain showers followed by sporadic torrential floods, which are commonly characterized by sharp peak discharge of short duration. The catchement areas of the Gulf of Suez basins include the coastal highway which is constructed close, and in most cases, parallel to sub-parallel to the Gulf shoreline. This highway is crossed from east to west by the lower reaches of most of the Gulf drainage basins. Frequent flash floods seriously affect the highway and human activities along the coastal plain. The present study analyzes and evaluates the situation at the area selected, and suggests practical alleviative measures. A map of risk assessment and mitigative measures is prepared for local sites threatened by flooding. Moreover, some precautionary measures are recommended to be taken into consideration to minimize the flood damage based on dispersion of flood energy by reducing the amount and speed of down flow and (or) diverting runoff direction in cases.
ASSESSING LAND CAPABILITIES OF SOME AREAS AROUND SAHNAT AL-ABD DEPRESSION, NUBARlYA, EGYPT
The area located around Sahnat Al-Abd Depression represents a transitional zone between different environmental depositional factors, such as marine and aeolian deposits. In the meantime, it is considered as one of the potential land reclamation areas. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze and diagnose the natural resource base of some soils around Sahnat Al-Abd Depression and estimate its land capability. Taking into consideration the limiting soils criteria for promoting sustainable agricultural development and defining its positive and negative consequences in the future. For obtaining that goal, physiographic analysis of the conventional aerial photos of 1975 was carried out to delineate different mapping units of the investigated area, while Landsat images of August 1997 were used for identifying the main land-cover. Sixty-two soil observations representing the different geomorphic units were morphologically described and representative soil samples have been collected for physical and chemical analysis in the laboratory. Soils were classified into different taxonomic units where the main soil characteristics of the area were descried. The results of the potential land capability classes illustrated that 21430 feddans (17.1 % of the total studied area) are of non- limitations for cultivation (C1). This area is considered very suitable for modem systems of irrigation. Out of this area only 5690 feddans are cultivated and 15740 feddans are not cultivated. An area of about 29860 feddans (23.8 % of the total studied area) is with slight limitation (C2). Out of this area only 18210 feddans are cultivated and 11650 feddans could be cultivated. Soils with marginal limitation (C3) were about 41850 feddans (33.4 % of the total studied area), of which only 24200 feddans are cultivated.
DIGITAL PROCESSING POTENTIALITY OF LANDSAT-TM DATA FOR SOIL SURVEY AND CLASSIFICATION ON THE WESTERN SIDE, GULF OF SUEZ, EGYPT
A base map and soil classification was prepared for an area including three wadis, Hagol, Badaa and Ghwiba in the western side of the Gulf of Suez based on remote sensing techniques. This area is located approximately between Longitudes 32° 05' and 32° 26' E and Latitudes 29° 35' and 29° 42' N. A Landsat-TM sub-scene was analyzed using various image processing techniques which include False Colour Composite (FCC) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to increase the spectral discrimination capability among terrestrial materials. Band image was used to map the surface topography and showed the main streams of the studied three wadis and their deltas as one unit having bright colour. Moreover, Colour Ratio Composite (CRC) was applied to express more units and information comparing to the colour composite especially wadi bottom, drainage system and the variation in lithology of the area between Wadi Bedaa and Wadi Ghwiba. The unsupervised classification of Landsat data was carried out in order to obtain more classes each of them has its own spectral signature. The unsupervised classification of FCC compiled with field check is more accurate and has the ability to delineate more classes than the other applied processing techniques. This technique differentiated, to some extent, between the different geomorphic units within the study area at certain level. The unsupervised classification for PCA is considered useful technique for geological studies with the help of the geological map and ground truth in an exposed arid region. Generally, the soils of the study area were classified according to Soil Survey Staff (1998) to four subgroups, Lithic Torriorthents, Typic Torriorthents, Typic Raplocalcids and Typic Raplosalids. Results of unsupervised classification indicate that, in spite of the differences in soil surfaces classes, colour of the studied profiles, sometimes a combination of these classes enables the identification of soil subgroups. Land suitability for irrigated agriculture has been carried out based on Syc et al., (1991) and FAO (1976) systems. Accordingly, the study soils could be classified into marginally suitable, currently not suitable, and permanently not suitable classes. It is worthy to note that the use of remote sensing techniques to differentiate between the aforementioned land suitability classes were so difficult, where these classes precisely depend on soil characteristics, crop requirements and environmental conditions, whereas the remote sensing techniques rely on soil surface spectral reflectance. The results confirmed the fact that the use of soil surface spectral reflectance as a guideline for soil survey at certain level, classification and suitability is not sufficient enough under the conditions of the selected area.
KUWAIT INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION NETWORK (KlEIN): CAPABILITIES OF THE PRESENT PHASE-II
Most of the Arabian Gulf states are currently embarking on the formulation and implementation of national, regional and international projects, to preserve and protect the environment as a prerequisite for sustainable development. Recent experiences with environmental issues have highlighted the need to improve the information base upon which decisions are made. Also, providing decision makers and planners with the needed environmental information in a comprehensive, balanced, accurate and timely manner, is essential for the formulation of environmental policies, strategies and programs. Kuwait Environmental Information System (KEIS) is a national program developed by Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KlSR) in cooperation with Regional Information Technology and Software Engineering Center (RITSEC) in Egypt. This system is a main part of a Kuwait Integrated Environmental Information Network (KlEIN). It consists of five phases. Phase one and two of this project have been successfully completed. The application's strategic objective is to contribute to Kuwait sustainable development program through the establishment of a national Environmental Information System to support decision/ policy makers and researchers. It aims at establishing a state-of- the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) database for terrestrial, coastal, marine and atmospheric compartments, to facilitate the optimum utilization of available relevant data, and to enhance decision support activities in the field of sustainable development. It is concluded that GIS is a sufficient tool to manage the environmental issues, and support the decision/ policy makers and planners on the sustainable development activities.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF DUST STORMS OVER THE NILE DELTA, EGYPT USING MODIS SATELLITE DATA
Egypt is located on the northeastern part of Africa. It is included within the arid and semi-arid zone. It represents also a part of the Northern African Sahara, which includes the great sand sea covering the southwestern part of the country, and the southeastern part of Libyan terrain. Air pollution from dust storms is considered as a serious problem in some cities. The blown sand and dust coming into urban areas from the neighboring Western Desert create an almost permanent haze over the big cities, such as Cairo and Alexandria. The present work is a trial to monitor the dust storms over the Nile Delta, Egypt and search for its cause, extension and time of occurrence. MODIS sensor proved to be one of the most efficient satellite data source for such studies
LONG-TERM CHANGES ALONG THE NILE DELTA COAST: ROSETTA PROMONTORY A CASE STUDY
Remote sensing has been used to detect shoreline changes along Rosetta promontory of the Nile Delta over the last two decades. The study focuses on using the geo-information technology for updating changes over the Delta coast, in particular active stretches of the coastal area, by comparing existing configurations with ancillary surveys and studies, describing various changes, and attempting to establish existing and future classifications of different coastal activities. Multi-date satellite data for the years 1984, 1986, 1991, 1995, 1997 and 2000 were used. Results of the study showed that the rate of changes is 118.6 m/y. Other published results determined a rate between 18 m/y as a minimum shift and 230 m/y as a maximum shoreline change at Rosetta promontory over the last century. All studies revealed that this severe erosion is due to coastal processes, sediment defficiency and sea level rise or/and Delta subsidence. Coastal instability at Rosetta promontory has almost continued during the last century. Severe erosion was determined along other cells over the Delta coast. Many development projects are constructed and planned during the last five decades, without taking into consideration this kind of problems.
GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF WADI QENA BASIN, EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT, USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES
Wadi Qena basin attracted the attention of planners for agricultural development and tourism. The interpretation of Landsat-TM satellite images was used to construct the basic geological, structural and geomorphological maps for Wadi Qena basin. These maps were highly beneficial in groundwater exploration. Geomorphologically, the western side of Wadi Qena represents a structural platform of Nubia Sandstone with major fault scarps oriented N-S and NW-SE and is characterized by incised main NW wadis such as: Wadi Aras, Wadi Jurdi and Wadi Shahedayn. The eastern side of Wadi Qena represents denudational landforms of outcropping basement rocks, and is characterized by braided channels at the southern part which is covered by sedimentary rocks. The direction of the general slope is due south towards the main course of Wadi Qena. The geologic structure of Wadi Qena has its own bearing on the hydrogeological characteristics prevailing in the Nubia Sandstone aquifer. The area bounded by the two major eastern and western marginal faults has potentiometric levels higher than the adjacent areas. Consequently, it has a higher hydraulic gradient than the others. Groundwater flows from north to south. Pumping tests had revealed that the Nubia Sandstone aquifer has good hydraulic potentialities. The groundwater is of meteoric origin and has a good quality where it could be used for different purposes. Accordingly, geomorphological features and geological structures are considered as criteria for the occurrence of groundwater in Wadi Qena. These features were used to propose new sites for groundwater.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT
The role of information technology (IT) for Earth observation and Environmental Monitoring and Impact Assessment (EMIA) is undeniable to the extent that apart from the human presence in this process, EMIA is belonging "totally" to the IT world. The EMIA is concerned with the environmental monitoring: Disaster Monitoring (Floods /Hurricanes/Fires....etc), data collection form the deployed in- situ sounding sensors, timeliness delivery to processing centers and dissemination for situation awareness and urging the counter actions. With this picture in mind, the IT support becomes evident and appreciated. This paper is dedicated to clarify the role of IT in the domain of EMIA starting from the data collection process (covering the spatial and temporal sampling) through processing, correlating, interpreting and disseminating. Due to the wide extent of the environmental phenomena, coordinated efforts and worldwide organizations and networks incorporating satellites are found in such application. An overview of the infrastructure required whether or not implemented is given and interactions are highlighted.
LOCATION AND ALLOCATION IN APPLICATION SPECIFIC SATELLITE-BASED INFORMATION NETWORKS
Application Specific Information Networks are conceived to secure a set of services for specific users. They may use some segments and services of a more general information network, but will remain specific in terms of implied characteristics of the given application and attributed economics. Of such networks, we consider a generic network that serves for aeronautical applications as the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN), serves for the vessels (ships) as Vessel Traffic System (VTS) and serves for land mobile vehicles as Vehicle Navigation Information System (VNIS), the Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS), Universal/Advanced Traffic Management System (U/ATMS), Advanced Road Transportation System (ARTS) or Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). This paper presents a unified framework (suite) for investigating the infrastructure for solving the problem of "vehicle" location, reporting and navigation/guidance. The "vehicle" here stands for land-, sea- and space vehicles. Moreover, land vehicles may include other mobile objects like robots. The reporting function, that yields to construct the traffic image, opens the issues for traffic management and guidance (task allocation). This possibility of control is essential for resource management and safety. Moreover, search and rescue services could be merged within such a system. If a "universal" monitoring system is being searched, the tendency will be towards implementing a satellite constellation anti-satellite links. The whole system is really satellite -based as location/navigation - based upon the NA VSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), images and maps for Terrain Reference Navigation (TRN) and mission planning are remote sensing satellite derived, the same as environmental information. Moreover, the communication and guidance link as well as surveillance are also satellite-based. The peculiarities of each application air/sea/ land have their impacts upon the system architecture and relevant processing.